(A) Elements of art

The elements of art are the basic components or building blocks that artists use to create works of visual art. These elements are the fundamental tools that artists manipulate to convey meaning, create visual interest, and express themselves. The commonly recognized elements of art are:

 Point, Line,  Shape,  Form, Value (Light and Dark), Color, Texture, Space.

             1)  Point :  In art, a “point” is like a tiny dot. It doesn’t have any length, width, or depth by itself. It’s the smallest mark you can make. Artists use points as the basic building blocks to create lines, shapes, and forms. When these dots are combined (… ……)  , they can form patterns, textures, and even entire images.

            2) Line  :  A line is a mark with length and direction. It can be straight, curved, diagonal, or irregular, and it is often used to define shapes or create patterns.

Line however is used to express human emotions and experiences. It is also used mostly for conventional representation of object.

Emotional qualities of different kinds of Lines 

(i)    Vertical Line   –  Upliftment, enhancement

(ii)   Horizontal Line  –  Tranquility, repose

(iii)  Diagonal Line  –  Dynamic

(iv)   Curve  –  Pleasure

(v)    Spiral  –  Happiness

(vi)   Zig Zag  –  Confusion

(vii)  Oval  –  Charm

(viii)  Circle  –  Fullness

When line is used for value or shading, we most typically see it used in the form of hatching or cross hatching.

          3)  Shape: Shapes are two-dimensional, enclosed areas defined by lines or other elements of art. They can be geometric (e.g., circles, squares) or organic (more freeform and irregular).

          4) Form : Unlike shape, form is a three-dimensional object that has volume and mass. It can be viewed from multiple angles, and it has depth as well as height and width.

          5) Value : Value refers to the lightness or darkness of a color. Artists use shading and highlighting to create the illusion of three-dimensional form and depth.

          6) Color : Color is the visual perception resulting from the way an object reflects or emits light. The color wheel is often used to understand relationships between different colors, and it includes primary, secondary, cool and worm colors.

A pure colour harmonizes with tints and white with shade and black or with tones and grey. A tint and a tone blend with black, and a shade and a tone go well with white.

Groups of tints, shades or tones also harmonise well psychologically every different colour creates a certain effect on us emotionally. Such an effect of the colour is either pleasing or irritating, relaxing or exciting, warm or cool, bright or dull.

Emotional characteristics of colours

(i) Red –  Excitement, danger, hatred, passion, strong emotion

(ii) Yellow – Cheerfulness, gaiety, light, gold, wisdom, brilliance.

(iii) Blue –  Cool, refreshing, quality, truth, slight metal depression

(iv) Green-  Relaxation, safety, cool, progress, growth, abundance, spring.

(v) Orange – Stimulation, knowledge, warmth

(vi) Pink – Healthy, Happiness, Delicacy, Feminine

(vii) Purple – Royalty, Dignity

(viii)  Black – Sorrow, Evil, Death, Darkness

(ix) White – Peace, Dignity, Purity, Cleanliness, Light

(x) Grey – Retirement, Quietness, Sadness, Humble, Soberness

                                                                  Properties of Colour

The Properties of colour are Hue, value and intensity

Hue: Hue is the name of the Colour

(Eg) Yellow

Value: Value is the lightness or darkness of the colour.

(Eg) Light yellow or dark yellow

Intensity: Intensity is the brightness or dullness of the colour

(Eg) Bright yellow or dull yellow


          7) Texture : The surface quality or feel of an object. Texture can be implied or actual and can be smooth,

rough, soft, or hard.

          8) Space : Space in art refers to the distance or area around, between, and within components of a piece.  It can be positive (occupied by objects) or negative (empty).